When scientists work completely independently from decision-makers, knowledge exchange is typically confined to reviews and reports.
An alternative approach is to adopt knowledge co-production methods where decision-makers actively participate in scientific research programs from the onset. Through co-producing the research, knowledge exchange often happens organically.
Sometimes scientists embed decision-makers inside their research teams.
This provides the decision-maker a first-hand view of the research process and helps ensure the needs they represent are well understood.
Sometimes scientist are embedded in the decision-makers organisation (e.g. a secondment).
This provides the scientist with insight into the needs of the decision-maker and helps ensure that the science is well communicated.
A project might designate one or more people within the research team as a knowledge broker. Brokers help ensure that the various parties understand one another and they arrive at the best possible outcome.
There are advantages to engaging an independent organisation to facilitate. This might be desirable when the stakeholder network is large and diverse.